Wednesday, January 25, 2006

"Why Don’t You Move Your Chair?"

Why are architects responsible if their buildings leak?

In this forum, the heart of this question is not the legal issue. Legally, the profession exists to protect the general public from unsafe building designs and conditions. By law, an architect exists to advocate for his clients on the organization, allocation, and disposition of building materials or elements. We charge for services on the basis of being able to deliver a design whose construction the government will approve, and whose contractor will be able to fabricate for a loosely predictable price. All those Professional Practice lecturers out there will point out that we derive an authority on the supposition that professional designs work, and work better.

This all implicitly means the buildings don’t leak.


The problem is that it is hard to find a leak in Wal*Mart. Nor does rainwater drip on patrons of the local McDonalds. Name a building that is antithetical to the purposes of Architecture, and chances are it does not leak either. The Farnsworth House and Phillip Johnson’s Glass House on the other hand – they’re all leaky glass. They lose heat in their northern climates like few other private residences. They probably don’t even satisfy their local building code anymore. These are great, important, influential buildings.


The correlation between well functioning buildings and great works of Architecture is a loose one. Yes, some buildings function exquisitely, and that is a source of their beauty – but that is not an exclusive source for Architecture. Arguably, it is not even a primary source.


Here are three points to support the thrust -- that leaks do not reduce a building’s architectural merit. The first is a commonly told fable about Frank Lloyd Wright, a man whose buildings infamously and notoriously leaked. The story is told in studios and bars all over the land, anytime an architecture studio head feels comfortable with his students. It points out that in 1937 Mr. Wright designed a house for the industrialist Hibbard Johnson. One rainy evening Johnson was entertaining distinguished guests for dinner when the roof began to leak. The water seeped through directly above Johnson himself, dripping steadily onto his bald head. Johnson was incensed and he called Wright immediately. “Frank,” he said, “you built this beautiful house for me and we enjoy it very much. But I have told you the roof leaks, and right now I am with some friends and distinguished guests and it is leaking right on top of my head.” Wright’s reply was heard by all of the guests. “Well, Hib, why don’t you move your chair?”


Why would that story be repeated so often? Because Mr. Wright and these teachers knew that necessarily, architects must remain innovators. The labor of innovation is experimentation. Custom designed homes are the product and instance of that experimentation. We all know some experiments work better than others. This is hard to accept because another, more glamorous yet contradictory view of architecture is prevalent. Important buildings in Western civilization are considered permanent; their institutionalization has also implied durability. Good buildings “Stand the test of time,” and that inherent durability overrides the fact that they too were once great risks; they were someone’s experiment. Experimentation and permanence are contradictory.


The second point is a quote from Peter Eisenman to a class of brand new architecture students. This class was taught in Paul Rudolph's Art + Architecture building. The text is a common statement he makes in all his classes, when he meets students for the first time…

" [...] You are learning to see, like hearing, and to read architecture. That is what all that analytic work is out there. Without that, you might as well be a plumber. Anyone can solve the problem of function of a house, or the problem of an apartment[-ed]. All you have to do is have lived in one. That does not mean you can do architecture. Doing architecture and solving the problem of the house or this auditorium -- because look, this auditorium has nothing to do with the quality of hearing, of sight, of your comfort of how I feel in relation to you. No. It is about something else. And what makes this building a great building is, that despite the fact that it does not solve functions, despite the fact that it does not solve problems but creates problems, it is considered a great work of architecture. So you here have an artifact. If this is not the most God-awful space you can think of, but clearly you feel compression. You feel some activity upon your corpus – this object is acting upon you. You feel compressed, oppressed, etc. I am not saying it is a good thing or a bad thing, but it is clearly what Rudolf had in mind. We are not here to judge Mr. Rudolf’s work or the work of any architect. We are here to understand how architecture can create effects, and this is what Argan talked about. He said that Brunelleschi, for the first time, created spatial effects, not merely the results of structure as in the Gothic cathedral. He uses Gothic structure because he does not know how to do anything else to create spatial effects. "
Emphasis was added. At stake for Eisenman is the affect of Architecture. His buildings leaked too, but in this quote he is developing an argument for where Architecture lies. Focusing away from the banality of everyday life, Eisenman needs buildings to create crisis and he tracks the medium of that crisis for a definition of Architectural moments. For him compression, tension, problem and predicament all are signs that a building is doing the work of Architecture. If the building isn’t provocative, or challenging in some small way, than it is merely a building, and one is bored enough to care where the rain is going.

The third point is very similar to the last, but drawn from an unexpected source. When Tado Ando said the following, he too was staking a claim for where Architecture is found. Like Eisenman, Mr Ando was legitimating his work by explaining a theoretical source from which the purpose of Architecture sprang. Who can resist when an contemporary Architect brings up Vitruvius?
“The modern architecture that I have been weaned on also espouses (clear) function, (exposed) structure, and (raw) material as principles — characteristics that tend to be accessed only from realistic or substantive dimensions. Fictionality or imagination, the other dimension, is omitted entirely. However, Vitruvius emphasized venustas, in other words attraction or beauty as a necessity along with strength and function. That is to say that he too, posed the fictional dimension of imagination combined with the realistic dimension as that synthesis which deeply effects human spirituality. Since the genesis of architecture, its fate has been that it connot be constituted by functionality alone.”
Indeed! Firmness, Commodity, and Delight. The legal definitions of an Architect seems to rest fully on the “Firmness” part of the Triad. But Architecture must continually experiment, lest it loose the “Delight.” This is a balancing act that can never be balanced.

Isn’t it funny how the water stains on the ceilings of our great buildings get us to renovate and restore them? Some Japanese temples are dismantled by their community and reassemble every twenty years. In these ways every generation is affirming its architectural heritage, and reestablishing the values to be handed to the next. In this way the imperfection built into the system is the element guaranteeing its perpetuation.

45 Comments:

Blogger Norman Blogster said...

Reading this excellent post induced simultaneous feelings of elation and disappointment: Elation because somebody else thinks this issue is worth talking about and disappointment because they got there first! But the issue is big enough for many, many posts, as it broaches many, many other issues - the role of the architect, the registration of the profession (I maintain it's more about protecting the architect from the public than the public from the architect), the eternal question of "what is architecture anyway?", time and entropy's influence on architecture (Giedion talked more about the first 3 dimensions than the 4th - that was modernity's agenda after all), contingency (difference between the drawings/design and the constructed reality), pesky users (you can see the FLW sitting there, tapping his cane and stroking his chin saying "I would've gotten away with it too, if it hadn't been for you pesky users!") and so on.
I was reminded of one of FLW's wives telling him that he shouldn't leave works of art out in the rain. This may be a little inaccurate - it's many years since I read Meryl Secrest's biography of the caped crusader, but it's not far off.
I've also recently read Suzanne Frank's "Peter Eisenmann's house - the client's response" which talks about the house having to be practically rebuilt and the architect showing little interest.
In a recent Professional Practice course, someone from a leading indemnity insurance company here in the UK gave a lecture. I can't remember the exact figure he quoted, but it was something like 80% of all payouts are due to leaking roofs. I've almost completed 7 years of formal architectural education now, almost crossed the finishing line and have thoroughly enjoyed the diversity and challenge of creativity. But I've never been taught how to detail a watertight roof. And yet soon, I'll be licensed to don the standard issue black polo-neck and call myself an architect, and that will mean that the insurers will underwrite me to practice this thing called architecture, knowing full well I haven't got a clue about the difference between the drawing board and the reality of the English weather.
Thanks again for a great blog.

6:51 AM  
Blogger J said...

Norman --

You are very generous with your praise, and overly kind to lavish so many good points tucked into the comment section of this blog!

1. I've never heard "I maintain it's more about protecting the architect from the public than the public from the architect," but I'm intreged. I want to agree, but don't know the consequences. We do need protection (as per number 2). As a fan of PartIV, I hope that you'll devote a post to that one.

2. I've heard that barb traded among architects before... "They let you put your buildings out in the rain?!" I believe one of FLW's wives threw it at him, but wonder how it could have also been attributed to Phillip Johnson, a certain MoMA curator, and others. How is it we get to be such a bristly breed? It reeks of insecurity, no?

3. I forgot about Suzanne Frank's book. Damn. That whole situation makes me a little uncomfortable. Didn't she have to rebuild the whole structure? (Also, the topic of a good post... )

4. I haven't taken on the accreditation tests here in the States either, but I agree that no one has showed me that watertight roof detail yet. Of course, no one wants to call a detail "perfect"; that's when it will invariably fail. Its weird how that standard issue black polo neck doesn't make one an architect, but neither does the dry roof. Too bad there isn't a right-of-passage, you know? Jokes about school aside, it would be tons easier we just went out into the desert for a dream-walk and returned when the coyote spoke to us. Returned an architect.

Like you said, the issue is big enough for many, many posts. I look forward to reading some of yours, and am worried I won't be able to comment on PartIV as well as you have here.

Thanks again,

J

10:46 PM  
Blogger Norman Blogster said...

Hehe, and I wrote it all without the help of an adult ;)

Update: Just checked my notes and it was 53% of all claims were from leaky roofs. Ok, I exaggerated, but it's still a helluva lot. Now where was that leaking roof detail we did on that job in Rainsville...

1:04 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Please increase the font size for your blog. I enjoy its content very much, but the normal font is at the low end of comfortable reading and the quotations are painful.

9:50 PM  
Blogger J said...

hey anonymous,

[Had trouble commenting up there...] No problem. Thanks for speaking up. I'll start with "Normal Font Only" posts tomorrow, as this evening's posts were done before I stumbled onto your comment. Thanks again...

J

12:20 AM  
Blogger Marvinlee said...

Architectural genius is entirely compatible with intelligence and intelligent roof design. I expect that most current architects design buildings whose roofs do not leak, provided that construction is as requested.

Modern buildings often include inputs from engineers and construction firms, so ultimate responsibility is apt to belong to the latter. Still, architects should learn enough about practical construction to design buildings that are waterproof without extraordinary construction innovation.

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Blogger Lauren jonczak said...

Nice post. I just bought my first house a few months ago and already I am having roof problems. Good thing a few of my friends that are roofers in Honolulu are coming to visit in a few weeks, so I am just going to ask them what I should do.

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Dan wibawa jepara furniture sering mengadakan promo lho!!!
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Semua produk furniture silahkan cek di :
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jasa wibawa jepara furniture mulai dari gazebo kitchen set gebyok Dll cek :
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jual kursi sofa silahkan cek di
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Jual Garden furniture silahkan cek disini:
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8:58 AM  
Anonymous fabricsofas said...

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12:48 AM  
Anonymous Mebel Jepara said...

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12:11 AM  
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3:10 AM  
Blogger Rani said...

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1:46 AM  
Anonymous tempat tidur anak said...

Perkenalkan kami Amalia Furniture sebagai perusahaan yang memproduksi furniture jepara ingin menawarkan produk-produk unggulan khas jepara jawa tengah indonesia yang cantik dan indah dengan harga yang tentunya relatif lebih terjangkau. Produk furniture jepara berkualitas menggunakan bahan baku kayu jati, kayu mahoni, trembesi dan jenis kayu lainnya yang tentunya dapat menyesuiakan keinginan anda. Ada berbagai macam produk yang kami buat. Diantaranya adalah produk Set Kamar Tidur. Komposisi set kamar tidur diantaranya adalah Tempat Tidur, Lemari Pakaian, Meja Rias, dan Nakas.
Harga yang kami tawarkan untuk set kamar tidur ini sangatlah beragam, hal ini didasarkan pada bahan baku yang digunakan, tingkat kesulitan pembuatan produk, ukuran dan warna finishing yang ingin anda aplikasikan pada produk mebel furniture jepara yang anda pesan. Anda tidak perlu khawatir mengenai harga, karena harga yang kami tawarkan dapat menyesuaikan dengan keuangan anda. Produk set kamar tidur ini, kami produksi sendiri secara langsung di Jepara, dikerjakan oleh pengrajin professional dalam bidang furniture jepara yang telah berpengalaman, sehingga produk yang dihasilkan adalah produk dengan kualitas terbaik furniture jepara. Jika anda berkenan untuk memesan produk furniture sesuai dengan keinginan anda, kami siap melayani dan membuatkannya untuk anda. Langsung saja hubungi kami untuk mendapatkan penawaran produk furniture jepara berkualitas baik furniture minimalis ataupun furniture ukiran jepara. Terimakasi, salam hangat dari kami dan selamat berbelanja furniture terlengkap dan terpercaya hanya di Amalia Furniture.

10:48 AM  
Anonymous Di Palu said...

I have Jual Songkok

3:11 AM  
Anonymous Jual Pintu Rumah said...

Perkenalkan kami sebagai perusahaan yang memproduksi model pintu rumah. Kami Jual Pintu Rumah ingin menawarkan produk-produk unggulan khas mebel pintu jepara jawa tengah Indonesia. Produk kami diantaranya adalah Model Pintu Minimalis, pintu kayu, pintu utama, model pintu masjid, pintu kamar, pintu garasi, dan Pintu Kayu Jati.

12:05 PM  
Anonymous Furniture Jepara Murah said...

Berbagai macam pilihan model dan desain untuk mengisi perabot furniture rumah anda.

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12:52 PM  
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4:31 PM  
Anonymous furniturecantik said...

Hello kami dari furniturecantik jepara kami akan menawarkan berbagai jenis furniture dari kami dari kursi sofa,tempat tidur,lemari Dll,wibawa jepara furniture ini adalah perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang furniture seja 2008 ,dengan pengrajin mebel dan ukir yang ahli di bidangnya masing2 .kami menjual produk2 furniture dan menerima jasa pembuatan segala produk furniture .desain produk yang kami jual adalah,shabby chic furniture ,minimalis furniture,modern furniture,klasik furniture,retro furniture Dll
Dan furniture cantik sering mengadakan promo lho!!!
Furniture harga murah dan kualitas terjamin karena furniture dan ukiran asli jepara
Semua produk furniture silahkan cek di :

furniture cantik jepara


partisi dan penyekat ruangan

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10:44 AM  

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